Aluminium, which is the metal of today and tomorrow, is one of the
most common elements in nature and, after steel, the most commonly used metal
in engineering structures. The density of aluminium (2.71 g / cm3) is one third
of the density of steel (7.83 g / cm3). The yield strengths of some aluminium
alloys exceed 500 MPa, which is above the yield strengths of many types of
Aluminium and properties
• Aluminium is light. It weighs only a third of the weight of a
steel material with the same volume. They are often used in applications where
lightness is required.
• Aluminium is resistant to weather, food and many liquids and gases
used in everyday life.
• Aluminium; With its anodic oxidation and electrostatic powder
coating applications, it creates an attractive appearance in the application
areas. The lifespan of these applications is quite long.
• Aluminium is an elastic material. Therefore it is insensitive to
sudden impacts. Nor does its durability decrease at low temperatures.
• The electrical and thermal conductivity of aluminium is lower
than that of copper. However, the comparison of the values for the specific
electrical conductivity (electrical conductivity / density) and the specific
thermal conductivity (thermal conductivity / density) seems to be better than
• All methods such as casting, forging, rolling, pressing,
extruding and drawing can be used to form the aluminium.
• In corrosive environments, the surface of aluminium is covered
with an oxide layer to ensure the corrosion resistance of aluminium. Because of
this property, aluminium can be used in many corrosive environments.
• The ability of aluminium to mold hot and cold is good. Aluminium profiles with a very mixed geometric
structure can be produced using the extrusion process. It can be used in
packaging processes by producing foils with a thickness of several micrometers.
• Aluminium can be made in various colors by electrolytic
oxidation. This process, called anodizing, can be used to produce both
corrosion-resistant and optical products in different colors.
Aluminium and alloys
The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of aluminium
alloys vary depending on the alloying elements and microstructure. The main
alloying elements of aluminium are copper, manganese, silicon, magnesium and
zinc. Most aluminium alloys can be heat treated.
Aluminium alloys are classified with four letters. This
classification is as follows:
• 1XXX: pure aluminium. It is widely used in the electrical and
• 2XXX: Al-Cu alloys. The main alloying element is copper. Other
alloying elements, mainly magnesium, are also found and are widely used in the
aerospace industry where high strengths are required.
3XXX: Al-Mn alloys. The main alloying element is manganese. It is
used in pipes, liquid tanks and architectural applications.
• 4XXX: Al-Si alloys. The main alloying element is silicon. They
are alloys with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high abrasion
resistance and corrosion resistance. It is used in welded structures, in plate
production, in auto parts production.
• 5XXX: Al-Mg alloys. The main alloying element is magnesium. The
hardness and strength increase with increasing magnesium content, but the
ductility decreases. Because it is highly resistant to ship corrosion, it is
used to manufacture structures that are used in this environment.
• 6XXX: Al-Mg-Si alloys. The main alloying elements are magnesium
and silicon. These high-forming alloys are often used in the manufacture of
• 7XXX: Al-Zn alloys. Copper is the basic alloy element,
magnesium, chromium and zirconium are additional alloys
• elements are. The 7XXX series is the highest strength of aluminium
alloys. It is used in the manufacture of aircraft parts and in other places
where high strength is required.
• 8XXX: Al-Li alloys: The main alloying element is lithium, and
tin additions can be made. This material, which is used in particular in
aircraft and space structures, has good fatigue resistance and good toughness
• 9XXX: Newly found alloys (example: lithium alloys)
Aluminium and the future
With the development of industry and technology, the use of
aluminum is increasing. Aluminium is preferred for lighter, stronger, more
efficient, more durable and consequently more economical products.
Aluminium is an indispensable material for aircraft, better
buildings and bridges, power transmission lines and other technical
applications, including space vehicles.
Aluminum industry; continues its research and development studies
for new alloys, technological developments, production methods, product design
and quality control.
Aluminium and the environment
All industrial applications have an impact on the environment. The
aluminium industry is one of the least polluting industries. Aluminium production
methods do not pollute the environment.